Present-day Israel was a part of Turkey before the First World War, named ‘Ottoman Empire’. In the First World War, Turkey was against of the Allied forces, resulted direct rivalry between Turkish and Baratania governments. Britishers won the war and the Ottoman Empire came to an end.
This was the time when spirit of Zionism (an ideology and nationalist movement) was at its peak among the Jews who wanted to create an independent Jewish state. So the Jews from all over the world started coming to Palestine. Britain openly supported rehabilitation of the Jews and ensured them for helping to make Palestine as separate homeland of the Jews.
But in the second world war Britain lost the both, battle and power, and could not sustain its help to the Jews. Other countries pressurized Britain to rehabilitate the Jews, but it isolated itself from the issue, so that the matter went to the newly formed United Nations in 1945.
The UN divided Palestine into two halves on November 29, 1947. The first part became the Arab state and the second became Israel and Jerusalem was placed under the control of UN. But Arab countries refused to accept the decision.
After a year, Israel declared itself an independent country, which recognized by America. Arab countries attacked Israel to get sovereignty of Palestine. But with America’s support, Israel gave a tough fight to Arab countries in every battle.
Jerusalem has always been the centre of the Israeli-Palestinian crisis, with its holy sites revered by Jews and Muslims. The Old City’s Western Wall forms part of the holiest site in Judaism – the Temple Mount. It is equally part of the al-Haram al-Sharif, or the Noble Sanctuary, with the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa mosque – the third holiest site in Islam – above it.
Similarly, for Christians, Jerusalem is one of the most sacred places, because of ‘The Church of the Holy Sepulchre’. It is believed that Jesus was crucified and then resurrected here only.
Israel captured the eastern part of Jerusalem in the 1967 war. Since then Israel continues to consider Jerusalem as its capital. But it has not been recognized by international forum so far. Nor there is any embassy of any country. So Tel Aviv is considered as the political capital of Israel.
Similarly, Palestinians also want to keep Jerusalem as their capital as soon they became an independent country, demanding Israel to return back Westbank and the Gaza Strip with liberating East Jerusalem.